Grammar Lesson 11
السلام عليكم فضيلة الشيخ – حفظكم الله
Your dars makes each category of jam” very clear to understand and is very useful and interesting.
I benefitted greatly.
جزاكم الله خيرا ودامتْ بركاتُـكم.
Assalamu ‘Alaykum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuh dear Shaykh,
Maa Shaa Allah this is a very beneficial lesson, explained in an easy and clear manner.
May Allah grant you the ability to continue serving the deen.
I would like to ask a question based on this lesson:
Can you clarify the usage of انسان for me please. From what I understand is that when it is nakira, it can refer to a single person. However, we use the same form to refer to mankind.
1) When it is nakira can it be used for mankind?
2) Likewise, when it is mu’arraf bi al, can it refer to both a single person, and mankind (not at the same time)?
3) What type of jam’ is انسان when it refers to mankind?
4) Or does the alif-laam convey the meaning of jins, and therefore انسان is still mufrad?
I do apologise if I have posted the question in the wrong place.
thanks. keep on updating these.
Kindly refer chapter 80(Abasa) verse 10. Verb talahhaa is shown as form 1. past in books.
root is laam, haa and wove. if it is past taa becomes Alamatul-mudhar, it then cant be past. If form 2 then Taa shall have Damma.
To me it seems form 5.then it fits in meaning and construction. kindly clarify to me – a primary student of grammar. thanks Allah give you reward.
وعليكم السلام ورحـمة الله
You are right Brother, it is baab fifth conjugation: baab تَــفَــعَّــلَ.
The root is:
Pls see the Shaykh’s course: Nuur “alaa Nuur: Suurat al-Nuur.
May Allah reward you for your blog. I have just finished all three books taught by brother asif. As a learner my questions may not be of literary importance, but the answers given encourages me to ponder more and more on quraan. May Allah bless brother asif, too. Great teacher. Allah bless the whole team. Aameen A blessed beneficiary of your blog.
السلام عليكم Brother, Dr Khokhar
جزاك الله خيرا .
Mubaarak for completing the 3 Madinah Books.
Firstly I pray Allah , long live the shaykh and his team.
Please again ref. to chapter 80, verse 17, قتل الإنسان ما أكفره . meaning in mushafs show the word اكفر comparative noun but on laam kalma there is fatah I may be wrong but to me it seems form 4 which means to deny. please guide me.
Secondly in Duaa Syed-ul-isteghfar there is a word أبوء which mean confess. What is the root for this word.
وعليكم السلام ورحـمة الله Brother
قــتــل الإنسان ما أَكْفَرَه:
You are right, the word أَكْفَرَ in ما أَكْفَرَه is not an ism tafDiil (a comparative/superlative noun). The construction is a verb called:
فِعْلُ الــتَّــعَــجــب (verb of wonder).
أَكْفَرَ is a fi”l maaDin.
The hamzah in أَكْفَرَ is هــمزة الــتعديةِ hamzatu l-ta”diyati.
The meaning of ما أَكْفَرَه is: How ungrateful he is!
Grammatically it is like: ما أَطْــوَلَــهُ! How tall he is!
ما أَسْـــعَـــدَهُ! How happy he is!
Madinah Book 2, lesson 9 teaches this.
The i”raab of fi”l al-ta”ajjub is explained in our Shaykh’s Poetry dars 2.
أَبُوءُ: The root is ب و ء : بــوء.
The verb is بَاءَ يَــبُـوءُ.
It has different meanings based on the context.
The following two aayaat have this verb:
Aal “Imraan: 112.
جزا ك الله كم خيرا
It is beautiful detailed reply and now I will strive more to ponder on quraan as I have found the source from where I will be getting guidance. Thanks a lot
Thanks , I have gone through the referred explanation of فعل التعجب from the poetry.
Please just comment on my understanding of syntactic analysis of the اّيه
قتل الانسان ما أكفره ruined is the man, who ما as اسم موصوله الذى then أكفر as فعل ماضى باب افعل (4) and ه as مفعول به returning to تذ كره in verse 11 . Giving the meaning: destroyed is the man who denied it. As ه in verse 12 ذكر ه who so wills rememed it.
I have understood your analysis as verb of astonishment but just want to know is there any grammatical misunderstanding in my syntax analysis. thanks
السلا م عليكم
Thanks a lot for such a detail reply. As I wrote earlier I had understood this from the reference you gave of Shaykhs poetry analysis in your first reply.
I did not refer ه of أكفره to الانسان as you said but to تذكره in verse 11 of same chapter like ه of ذكره in verse 12 after it.
Secondly in quranic dictionary of quran corpus site meaning of form 4 verb أكفر is given as ” to be ungrateful or to deny ” means intransitive, and not as “to make somebody ungrateful” transitive. This make me thought to translate this as ” ruined is the man who denied تذكره .( which was being preached by the prophet( peace be upon him).
Once again very many thanks for guiding us the learners for such trivial queries. Allah Bless All of You. This generosity of yours to reply of such things which may be very primary to you encourage us to be clear in our understanding of language of quraan taught by the honorable shaykh and his team. Lot of prayers for the whole team.
جـزاك الله خيراً.
Pls note: Qur’an Corpus website contains many errors in their lexical and grammatical notes and i”raab of the Qur’aan.
Our Shaykh advises Arabic students not to learn from that website.
I have written to the website pointing out some of their errors.
Hopefully it will improve.
Thanks for the advice, and so prompt a reply.
Please one more point to be cleared if أكفر is taken as form 4, them where is همزة التعدية as it is فعل التعجّب or hamza is serving two purposes, or the verb is form 1 trilateral كفر . my apology for my ignorance. thanks
The root is كَــفَــرَ.
In baab fourth conjugation, we prefix هــمــزة الـتــعــدية which is أَ and it becomes أكْْْــفَــرَ.
أكْــفَــرَ alone is not فِعْْلُ التــعــجّــب. It is simply a baab af”ala verb. Other baab af”ala verbs are:
But when we combine these verbs with maa al-istifhaamiyyah, the combined expression is the فِعْْلُ التــعــجّــب, i.e.
ما (الاستفهامية) + أكــفــرَ = ما أكفرَ.
مَا أكفرَ = فعل التعجب.
If we remove مَا then only أكفرَ remains.
أكفرَ is not a فِعْْلُ التــعــجّــب.
اسلام عليكم انّما in one meaning is used as “only” as explained in book on chapter Hujraat, then an other explanation when is written as انّ حرف توكيد و نصب and ما as اسم موصول together as اتّما as explained in some dvd of Shaykhs class. Is there any other way of differtiating than the context or meaning of the sentence. Thanks
Thanks a lot for a detailed systemic scientific reply with reference of Quranic verses,
which makes the reader crystal clear of the subject.
Have no words to thank but to say, ” May Allah preserve, bless and reward the Shaykh and his team.” from the core of our heart. This Blog is an asset and treasure of knowledge for us. May Allah give us توفيق to benefit from it. آمين
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